Scientific writing has two goals: to tell your reader of new developments in a field that is specific also to address existing questions with new evidence.

Academic writing research paper sample

  • Academic writing when you look at the sciences addresses new scientific developments and clarifications of scientific questions, most often in the shape of a lab report, journal article, or literature review. The natural sciences include fields such as astronomy, biology, chemistry, and physics; the social sciences include anthropology, economics, linguistics, political science, sociology, and psychology.
  • Scientific papers commonly follow the IMRAD model, which is short for introduction, method, results, and discussion.
  • The introduction should describe elements such as the paper’s motivation, aim, problem, tested hypothesis, novel contributions, background materials, and a synopsis regarding the material that is subsequent.
  • The writer’s should be covered by the methods section assumptions, system model, simulation what is model, and gratification measures. For an original study, when, where, and how the research was conducted, what materials were utilized, and who had been included in the study groups should all be included.
  • In describing the results, the writer will include any empirical data, charts, and plots that convey the answer to the research question, and state perhaps the research hypothesis was proven or otherwise not proven.
  • The discussion section should analyze the outcomes, state why they matter, contextualize them with regards to existing research, and suggest the implications for future research.
    • objectivity: the capability to perceive an interest without having to be impacted by personal biases or emotions.
    • bias: a opinion that is definite position on a topic.
    • lab report: A step-by-step explanation for the materials, methods, data, results, analysis,
      conclusions, and references of an experiment.

    Scientific research papers report new discoveries, applying evidence to resolve questions and identify patterns. Writing in these disciplines often takes the type of peer-reviewed journal articles, literature reviews, grant proposals, case studies, and lab reports.

    As an example, in an environmental-science lab report, a student might analyze research leads to address or clarify a specific scientific development or question:

    “This study is designed to identify quantities of chlorine and phosphorus compounds in a three-mile stretch of this Columbia River, that will be a location notable for salmon runs. An analysis of samples bought out a two-year period from various locations inside the three-mile stretch revealed the persistence of high degrees of phosphorous and chlorine compounds. Within the scholarly study, we examine the connection between salmon population as well as the persistence among these compounds.”

    Scientific papers require significant amounts of preliminary work, including research, field work, and experimentation. Translating that work into writing may be difficult, but academic conventions provide a common template for communicating findings clearly and effectively.

    Writing in the sciences seeks to spell out complex phenomena in clear, straightforward prose that minimizes bias that is authorial. In addition it includes elements of classical argument, since scientific papers are anticipated to contextualize, analyze, and interpret the given information at hand.

    Precision of Language

    Lab reports, case studies, and other kinds of scientific writing needs to be precise so that you can provide results that may be reproduced and tested.

    Strive to use words that are simple sentences. Some students make an effort to make their work sound more intellectual making use of obscure words and long, elaborate sentences. The truth is, the academy values precise words and detailed descriptions which can be still understandable to a audience that is lay. Don’t make an effort to mimic the stereotype of dense, convoluted academic writing. Instead, write as simply and clearly as possible. Precision is a component that is key of.

    When you look at the sciences, precision has two main applications: using concrete examples, and using clear language to describe them. Defining your parameters accurately is vital. Don’t generalize—provide exact times, measurements, quantities, along with other relevant data as much as possible. Using precise, straightforward language to spell it out your work can be vital. It is not the time or location for flashy vocabulary words or rhetorical flourishes. Style, however, is still important: currently talking about the sciences doesn’t offer you a pass to create sloppily.


    The sciences strive for objectivity at each stage, through the experimental procedures to the language found in the write-up. Science writing must convince its audience that its offering an important, innovative contribution; as a result, this has an character that is argumentative. Combining objectivity and argumentative writing can be challenging. Scientific objectivity has two requirements: your hypothesis must certanly be testable, as well as your results should be reproducible.

    The importance of objectivity in the sciences limits writers’ capacity to use persuasive rhetoric. However, it’s still required to make a strong case for the importance, relevance, and applicability of one’s research. Argumentative writing comes with a accepted place in scientific papers, but its role is limited. You might use language that is persuasive the abstract, introduction, literature review, discussion of results, and conclusion, but stay away from it once you describe your methods and present your results.


    Many students struggle to transition from a single topic to another. Transitions are very well worth mastering—they would be the glue that holds your opinions together. Never assume that the reader will correctly guess the relationships between different subtopics; it is your responsibility to explain these connections.

    Scientific Reasoning

    Keeping your chosen model in mind as you write will help make sure that your decisions and conclusions are logically consistent. Also, be cautious about logic traps such as for instance bias and faulty causality. Researchers must account for their own biases, or personal preferences, prejudices, and preconceived notions. These can sometimes include cognitive bias (irrational thinking), cultural bias (the imposition of one’s own cultural standards upon research subjects), and sampling bias (the tendency during sample collection to add some people in the intended sample more readily than others).

    The human body of a scientific paper generally is comprised of the following sections: introduction (which may include a literature review), methods, results, and discussion.

    Learning Objectives

    Define each component of the IMRAD structure

    Key Takeaways

    Key Points

    • The IMRAD model is the conventional structural method of academic writing when you look at the sciences. The IMRAD model has four parts: introduction, methods, results, and discussion.
    • An overview is provided by the literature review of relevant research in your discipline. This can be included within the introduction, or it might stand as its own section.
    • The techniques section should explain how you evaluated and collected your data.
    • Should your project conducts an experiment or an original data analysis, you need to include a different section that reports your outcomes.
    • The discussion section should analyze your results without reporting any new findings.
    • IMRAD: An acronym for Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion—the conventional structure of a paper that is scientific.
    • literature review: A synthesis associated with critical points of current knowledge in a given field, which includes significant findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a topic that is particular.
    • quantitative: Of research methods that depend on objective measurements and data analysis.
    • result: The discovery (or lack of discovery) that arises from the scientific method of investigation.
    • qualitative: Of research methods that create an even more subjective understanding by studying a subject’s defining qualities and character.

    In the natural and social sciences, the format for the body for the paper varies with respect to the discipline, audience, and research methods. Generally, the physical body regarding the paper contains an introduction, a methods section, results, and discussion. This process is named IMRAD for short.

    These sections are often separate, although sometimes the total answers are combined with methods. However, many instructors prefer that students maintain these divisions, since they are still learning the conventions of writing in their discipline. Most scientific journals prefer the IMRAD format, or variations of it, and even advise that writers designate the four elements with uniform title headings.

    You will need to stay true to each section’s stated purpose. You can cite relevant sources into the methods, discussion, and conclusion sections, but again, save the discussion that is lengthy of sources when it comes to introduction or literature review. The results section should describe your outcomes without discussing their significance, even though the discussion section should analyze your results without reporting any new findings. Think of each section as a course served at a dinner—don’t that is fancy the soup in to the salad or add leftover scraps from the entree into the dessert!